Click here to see my Google Scholar profile or publications listed in ORCID or PubMed. Hyperlinked authors indicate students supervised or co-supervised.

Book chapters

  1. Salzar RS, Lievers WB, Bailey AM, Crandall JR. Leg, foot, and ankle injury biomechanics. In:​ Yoganandan N, Nahum AM, Melvin JW, eds. Accidental Injury:​ Biomechanics and Prevention. 3rd ed. New York:​ Springer;​ 2015:​​499-547. doi:​​10.1007/978-1-4939-1732-7_18

Refereed Journal Publications

  1. Morton JJ, Bennison M, Lievers WB, Waldman SD, Pilkey AK. Failure behaviour of rat vertebrae determined through simultaneous compression testing and micro-CT imaging. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2018;79:73-82. doi:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2017.11.021
  2. LeClair B, O’Connor PJ, Podrucky S, Lievers WB. Measuring the mass and center of gravity of helmet systems for underground workers. Int J Indust Ergon. 2018;64:23-30. doi:10.1016/j.ergon.2017.10.001
  3. Lievers WB, Frimenko RE, McCullough KA, Crandall JR, Kent RW. Etiology and biomechanics of midfoot (Lisfranc) injuries in athletes. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2015;43(2-3):213-238. doi:​​10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v43.i2-3.60
  4. Lievers WB, Adamic PF. Incidence and severity of foot and ankle injuries in men’s collegiate American football. Orthop J Sports Med. 2015;​3(5):​2325967115581593. doi:​10.1177/2325967115581593
  5. Kent RW, Lievers WB, Riley PO, Frimenko RE, Crandall JR. Etiology and biomechanics of tarsometatarsal injuries in professional football players: A video analysis Orthop J Sports Med. 2014;​2(3):​2325967114525347. doi:​10.1177/2325967114525347
  6. Lievers WB. Manuscript processing times are negatively correlated with journal impact factors. Can J Inform Lib Sci. 2013;​37(4):​225-236. doi:​10.1353/ils.2013.0022
  7. Lievers WB, Kent RW. Patient-specific modelling of the foot: automated hexahedral meshing of the bones. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Eng. 2013;16(12):1287-1297. doi:​10.1080/10255842.2012.668538
  8. Frimenko RE, Lievers WB, Riley PO, Park JS, Hogan MV, Crandall JR, Kent RW. Development of an injury risk function for first metatarsophalangeal joint sprains. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(11):2144-2150. doi:​10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182994a10
  9. Riley PO, Kent RW, Dierks TA, Lievers WB, Frimenko RE, Crandall JR. Foot kinematics and loading of professional athletes in American football-specific tasks. Gait Post. 2013;38(4):563-569. doi:​10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.03.034
  10. Lievers WB, Frimenko RE, Crandall JR, Kent RW, Park JS. Age, sex, causal and injury patterns in tarsometatarsal dislocations: a literature review of over 2000 cases. Foot. 2012;22(3):117-124. doi:​10.1016/j.foot.2012.03.003
  11. Lievers WB, Pilkey AK. Characterizing the frequency of repeated citations: the effects of journal, subject area, and self-citation. Inform Process Manag. 2012;48(6):1116-1123. doi:​10.1016/j.ipm.2012.01.009
  12. Frimenko RE, Lievers WB, Coughlin MJ, Anderson RB, Crandall JR, Kent RW. Etiology and biomechanics of first metatarsophalangeal joint sprains (turf toe) in athletes. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2012;40(1):43-61. doi:​10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.v40.i1.30
  13. Salzar RS, Lievers WB, Frimenko RF, et al. Fracture tolerance of the patellofemoral joint in frontal knee impacts of 75 and 35 year old males. Int J Crashworthiness. 2011;16(4):397-409. doi:​10.1080/13588265.2011.596676
  14. Lievers WB, Poljsak AS, Waldman SD, Pilkey AK. Effects of dehydration-induced structural and material changes on the apparent modulus of cancellous bone. Med Eng Phys. 2010;​32(8):​921-925. doi:​10.1016/j.medengphy.2010.06.001
  15. Lievers WB, Petryshyn AC, Poljsak AS, Waldman SD, Pilkey AK. Specimen diameter and "side artifacts" in cancellous bone evaluated using end-constrained elastic tension. Bone. 2010;​47(2):​371-377. doi:​10.1016/j.bone.2010.03.024
  16. Lievers WB, Waldman SD, Pilkey AK. Minimizing specimen length in elastic testing of end-constrained cancellous bone. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2010;​3(1):​22-30. doi:​10.1016/j.jmbbm.2009.02.001
  17. Lievers WB, Pilkey AK. Matrix-erosion tessellation:​ comparing particle clustering measures extracted from three-dimensional vs two-dimensional images. Metall Mater Trans. 2009;​A40(1):​36-45. doi:​10.1007/s11661-008-9689-9
  18. Lievers WB, Lee V, Arsenault SM, Waldman SD, Pilkey AK. Specimen size effect in the volumetric shrinkage of cancellous bone measured at two levels of dehydration. J Biomech. 2007;​40(9):​1903-1909. doi:​10.1016/j.jbiomech.2006.09.002
  19. Lievers WB, Pilkey AK, Lloyd DJ. Using incremental forming to calibrate a void nucleation model for automotive aluminum sheet alloys. Acta Mater. 2004;​52(10):​3001-3007. doi:​10.1016/j.actamat.2004.03.002
  20. Lievers WB, Pilkey AK. An evaluation of global thresholding techniques for the automatic image segmentation of automotive aluminum sheet alloys. Mater Sci Eng. 2004;​A381(1-2):​134-142. doi:​10.1016/j.msea.2004.04.002
  21. Lievers WB, Pilkey AK, Lloyd DJ. The influence of iron content on the bendability of AA6111 sheet. Mater Sci Eng. 2003;​A361(1-2):​312-320. doi:​10.1016/S0921-5093(03)00535-5
  22. Lievers WB, Pilkey AK, Worswick MJ. The co-operative role of voids and shear bands in strain localization during bending. Mech Mater. 2003;​35(7):​661-674. doi:​10.1016/S0167-6636(02)00275-2

Conference Items

  1. Gaudet J, Lievers WB, Fairgrieve S. The Bone Impactor: An instrumented device for simulating blunt- or sharp-force trauma. Poster presented at the 2017 International Association of Forensic Sciences Conference (IAFS 2017). August 21—25, 2017; Toronto, Canada. [PDF]
  2. Morton JJ, Bennison M, Lievers WB, Waldman SD, Pilkey AK. In-situ micro-computed tomography imaging of rat vertebrae tested under uniaxial compression. Invited presentation at the 29th Canadian Materials Science Conference (CMSC 2017). June 20—23, 2017; Ottawa, Canada.
  3. Goggins K, Tarabini M, Corti F, Lievers B, Eger T. Resonant frequency identification at the foot when standing in a natural upright position during vertical vibration exposure. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Whole Body Vibration (WBV2017). June 19–21, 2017;​ Gothenburg, Sweden:85-86.
  4. Riley PO, Kent RW, Dierks TA, Lievers WB, Frimenko RE, Crandall JR. Stiffness of the first MTP joint in athletic activities. Proceedings of the 2014 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury. September 12–14, 2012; Dublin, Ireland:265-276.
  5. Frimenko RE, Lievers WB, Riley PO, Crandall JR, Kent RW. A method to induce navicular‐cuneiform/cuneiform‐first metatarsal sprain in athletes. Proceedings of the 2012 International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury. September 12-14, 2012; Dublin, Ireland:265-276.
  6. Frimenko R, Lievers WB, Riley P, et al. The development of a method to induce injurious hyperextension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Poster presented at: 35th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics (ASB). Long Beach, CA, August 10–13, 2011.
  7. Lievers WB, Pilkey AK, Worswick MJ, Lloyd DJ, An "elastic predictor-normal corrector" implementation of the kinematic hardening Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman equations. Proceedings of Plasticity 2002. Aruba, January 3–9, 2002.
  8. Lievers WB, Bissoon S, Pilkey AK, Worswick MJ, Jain M, Lloyd DJ. Effect of damage on the bendability of AA6111 aluminum automotive sheet. Proceedings of Plasticity 2000. Whistler, BC, July 17–21, 2000.
  9. Lievers WB, Pilkey AK, Worswick MJ, Jain M, Lloyd DJ. Incorporating void damage into numerical predictions of AA6111 sheet bendability. Proceedings of CIM’99. Quebec City, QC, August 22–26, 1999.


  1. Lievers WB. Effects of Geometric and Material Property Changes on the Apparent Elastic Properties of Cancellous Bone [PhD thesis]. Kingston, ON:​ Queen’s University;​ April 2009.
  2. Lievers WB. Effect of Void Damage and Shear Band Development on the Bendability of AA6111 Automotive Aluminum Alloy Sheet [Master’s thesis]. Ottawa, ON:​ Carleton University;​ 2001.